In Belgium, the Nagoya Protocol falls under the authority of the Regions, Communities and also of the federal government. This was confirmed by the Inter-ministerial Conference of Foreign Policy.

In 2011 the Ministers that gathered in the Inter-Ministerial Conference on the Environment (ICE) have stressed the need to conduct a study for identifying and evaluating the possible consequences to domestic law and regulation of the Belgian ratification of the Nagoya Protocol. This study, funded by the three regions and the federal government, was managed by a contact group representative of the concerned authorities.

This study was completed in 2013 and includes a series of important recommendations for Belgian stakeholders. Results of the study show that the implementation of the basic legal principles of the Protocol is in the interest of Belgium: the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and benefit-sharing. Ratification of the Protocol is therefore a priority for Belgium. The study recommends its gradual implementation. The first step is to meet the key requirements of the Protocol to enable its rapid ratification.

The federal government is committed to follow the recommendations of the study and begin the process of implementation of the Protocol in collaboration with the Regions and Communities.