The need to use resources more efficiently requires, amongst others, the development of alternative raw materials and the addition of more recycled materials in products. This search for efficiency should not however be at any price. It is therefore necessary to identify and evaluate these new risks in order to control them.

Unsustainable use of biomass

An option envisaged by industrialists is to substitute fossil-based (or other) raw material by raw material from biomass. Biofuels are a good example of this.
However, biomass originates from ecosystems that are increasingly coming under pressure. These pressures can endanger the renewable nature of these resources.

The increased use of raw materials from biomass can also lead to side effects such as:
• conflicts related to land management (including land issues and access to land);
• increased pressure on water resources;
• increase in price of foodstuffs;
• loss of biodiversity ;
• etc.
Therefore sustainable and controlled use of biomass is necessary to prevent any irresponsible social or environmental behaviour while meeting the changing needs of our economy.

Recycling has its limits

To ensure the efficient use of resources, it is increasingly recommended to incorporate recycled materials in products. This must of course be safe for the environment and human health. However, some waste, which is subsequently used as raw material, can be contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metal, etc. This is the case, for example, of construction waste, electrical and electronic waste, plastics in contact with some chemicals and tyres containing nanoparticles, etc.

This waste can therefore not be recycled in any manner.

Precious resources contained in new generation of products

To face the climate change and reduction of energy consumption challenges, new high-performance products are emerging and invading the market: turbines for windmills, photovoltaic cells, lighting devices, etc. ...).

However, these products may contain a number of precious resources that should be judiciously used.