Desk study on options for reducing emissions as well as underwater radiated noise from marine traffic, with a focus on the shipping fleet operated by Belgian companies.This study was commissioned by the Marine Environment Service and executed by TNO in 2020..

In a separate study, TNO has investigated the potential for reducing air emissions as well as underwater noise with a so-called operational ‘slow steaming’ scenario for the North Sea region, in which the maximum speed of the ships is limited in order to save energy and reduce emissions.