In the context of regionalisation and in compliance with agreements on State reform, the Federal Government and the Regions share environmental responsibilities in our country.

Flanders, Wallonia and the Brussels-Capital Region are responsible for:
- land-use planning,
- protection and conservation of nature,
- protection of soil, water and air and noise control,
- waste policy,
- production and supply of water,
- control of industrial activities.

The federal government is responsible for:
- product standards,
- protection against ionising radiation,
- import, export and transit of non-native plant and animal species and their remains,
- protection of the marine environment.

As part of the 6th State reforms, the responsibilities relating to the transit of waste and animal welfare were transferred to the Regions. This transfer came into effect on 1st July 2014.

The federal government is also responsible for the coordination of international environmental policy.

Environmental issues that require cooperation between the Regions and the Federal government are dealt with by the Inter-Ministerial Conference for the Environment (ICE), formed of representatives of ministers for environment in the regions and at the federal level.

The Federal and regional inspection services control the implementation of the environmental policy in Belgium.

For implementing the environmental policy, the Federal government consults with business federations, unions and specialised non-governmental organisations. This consultation is organised by topic or by file.

Other forms of cooperation have been established especially with business federations in the framework of sectoral agreements.